Nursing Care Plan For Diabetes

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a metabolic condition in which the body is unable to metabolize accumulated glucose, resulting in the accumulation of glucose in the body (hyperglycemia).

It can either be due to decreased or no production of insulin at all, or due to development of resistance to the insulin by GLUT receptors.

Classification of Diabetes Mellitus

Depending upon the pathophysiology of the disease, DM can be classified as:

  • Type 1 DM
  • Type 2 DM

Nursing Management

Nursing Assessment

Subjective Data

  • Past medical history
  • Past family history
  • Past surgical history
  • Past drug history
Nutritional Status
  • Weight of the patient
  • Anorexia & thirst
  • Wound Healing
Elimination
  • Any diarrhea or constipation
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Nocturia

Objective Data

  • Respiratory system
  • Gastrointestinal system
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Central nervous system
  • Musculoskeletal system
  • Integumentary system

Assessment of Insulin Therapy

The patient’s response and the response to insulin therapy is very important to understand. Counseling the patient for proper use of insulin shots, possible side-effects and adjusting accordingly is also very important.

Management of Complications of DM

Diabetic Keto-Acidosis

Assessment of DKA

Nausea, vomiting, dryness of mouth, extreme thirst, ketotic breath (very bad smell from the mouth), shallow pulse, urinary incontinence, and blood glucose level above 300mg/dl are all symptoms of DKA.

Nursing Interventions

  • Ensure that the patient’s airways are clear and oxygen perfusion is normal.
  • IV fluid resuscitation should be started.
  • IV insulin should be ensured continuously.
  • Make a note of the last insulin shot, last meal intake and history of DM of the patient.
Ongoing Monitoring
  • Continuously monitor oxygen saturation of the patient, urinary output and cardiac rhythms.
  • Assessment of respiratory sounds should be done.
  • Blood glucose and potassium should also be monitored continuously.

Hyperglycemia

Nursing Management

  • Inform the physician immediately.
  • Continue anti-diabetic drugs as prescribed by the physician.
  • Continuously monitor blood glucose and collect urine specimens.

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One Response

  1. Tabsheer says:

    Helpful

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