Nursing Care Plan For Diabetes
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a metabolic condition in which the body is unable to metabolize accumulated glucose, resulting in the accumulation of glucose in the body (hyperglycemia).
It can either be due to decreased or no production of insulin at all, or due to development of resistance to the insulin by GLUT receptors.
Classification of Diabetes Mellitus
Depending upon the pathophysiology of the disease, DM can be classified as:
- Type 1 DM
- Type 2 DM
- Past medical history
- Past family history
- Past surgical history
- Past drug history
- Weight of the patient
- Anorexia & thirst
- Wound Healing
- Any diarrhea or constipation
- Urinary incontinence
- Respiratory system
- Gastrointestinal system
- Cardiovascular system
- Central nervous system
- Musculoskeletal system
- Integumentary system
Assessment of Insulin Therapy
The patient’s response and the response to insulin therapy is very important to understand. Counseling the patient for proper use of insulin shots, possible side-effects and adjusting accordingly is also very important.
Management of Complications of DM
Assessment of DKA
Nausea, vomiting, dryness of mouth, extreme thirst, ketotic breath (very bad smell from the mouth), shallow pulse, urinary incontinence, and blood glucose level above 300mg/dl are all symptoms of DKA.
- Ensure that the patient’s airways are clear and oxygen perfusion is normal.
- IV fluid resuscitation should be started.
- IV insulin should be ensured continuously.
- Make a note of the last insulin shot, last meal intake and history of DM of the patient.
- Continuously monitor oxygen saturation of the patient, urinary output and cardiac rhythms.
- Assessment of respiratory sounds should be done.
- Blood glucose and potassium should also be monitored continuously.
- Inform the physician immediately.
- Continue anti-diabetic drugs as prescribed by the physician.
- Continuously monitor blood glucose and collect urine specimens.
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