Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes MellitusDiabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period and is characterized as an elevated level of blood sugars.

Types:

  • Type 1 DM
  • Type 2 DM

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Type 1 diabetes mellitus:

Type 1 DM is insulin dependent and is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreatic islets, leading to insulin deficiency.

Symptoms:

  • Polyuria (frequent urination)
  • Polydipsia (increased thirst)
  • Polyphagia (increased hunger)
  • Weight loss
  • Blurry vision
  • Feeling tired
  • Poor healing

Cause:

The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, it is believed that it is a genetic disorder.
Risk factors include having a family member with the condition.

Underlying mechanism:

The underlying mechanism involves an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.

Diagnosis:

Diabetes is diagnosed by testing the level of sugar or A1C in the blood. Type 1 diabetes can be distinguished from type 2 by testing for the presence of autoantibodies.

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Treatment:

Insulin Therapy

  • With an injection
  • Or with an insulin pump

Type 2 diabetes mellitus:

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.

Symptoms:

  • Polyuria (frequent urination)
  • Polydipsia (increased thirst)
  • Polyphagia (increased hunger)
  • Unexplained weight loss

Long-term Complications:

  • Heart disease
  • Strokes
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Blindness
  • Kidney failure
  • Poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations

Causes:

  • Obesity
  • Lack of exercise

Diagnosis:

  • Fasting
  • Plasma glucose
  • Oral glucose tolerance test
  • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C)

Treatment:

  • Staying a normal weight
  • Exercising regularly
  • Eating properly
  • Dietary changes

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