Rheumatic Fever – Causes, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, and Management

Rheumatic Fever – Causes, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, and Management


Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory condition that primarily affects children and adolescents and can have significant implications for long-term health. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of rheumatic fever, including its etiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic approaches, and management strategies.

Video Lecture on Rheumatic Fever

Etiology and Pathophysiology:

Rheumatic fever is a consequence of untreated or inadequately treated Group A Streptococcal (GAS) infection, specifically caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. The underlying mechanism involves an abnormal immune response triggered by molecular mimicry, where the immune system mistakenly targets the body’s own tissues, particularly in the heart, joints, skin, and central nervous system.

Clinical Presentation:

The clinical manifestations of rheumatic fever can vary widely but typically include migratory polyarthritis, carditis (inflammation of the heart), subcutaneous nodules, erythema marginatum (a distinct rash), and Sydenham’s chorea (involuntary movements). These symptoms often appear after a latent period following a GAS infection, making accurate diagnosis challenging.

Diagnostic Evaluation:

Diagnosing rheumatic fever relies on a combination of clinical findings and the fulfillment of the Jones criteria. These criteria encompass major and minor criteria related to specific manifestations and laboratory parameters. Additionally, laboratory tests, including throat cultures and anti-streptolysin O titers, can provide supportive evidence of recent GAS infection.

Long-Term Consequences:

Rheumatic fever can have long-term implications, primarily in the form of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). RHD is characterized by progressive valvular damage, leading to complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and an increased risk of infective endocarditis. Individuals with a history of rheumatic fever require lifelong monitoring and prophylactic antibiotic treatment to prevent recurrent episodes and mitigate the risk of further cardiac damage.

Management and Treatment:

The management of rheumatic fever focuses on eradicating the underlying GAS infection, alleviating symptoms, and preventing disease progression. Antibiotic therapy, typically involving penicillin or alternative agents in cases of penicillin allergy, is crucial to eliminate the bacteria and reduce the risk of recurrent episodes. Anti-inflammatory medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids, may be prescribed to address inflammation and relieve symptoms.

Patient Education and Supportive Care:

Patient education plays a vital role in the management of rheumatic fever. Patients and their families should be educated about the importance of completing the full course of antibiotics, recognizing symptoms of recurrence, and seeking prompt medical attention when necessary. Regular follow-up visits are essential to monitor disease progression, assess cardiac function, and adjust treatment plans as needed.


Rheumatic fever remains a significant public health concern, particularly in areas with limited access to healthcare and poor antibiotic adherence. Timely diagnosis, appropriate management, and lifelong monitoring are essential to minimize complications and improve long-term outcomes for individuals affected by this condition. By raising awareness and understanding of rheumatic fever, healthcare professionals can play a crucial role in its prevention, early detection, and comprehensive management.

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and should not replace professional medical advice. Consult with a healthcare provider for personalized guidance and treatment options for rheumatic fever.


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