Coronavirus Disease 2019 – All You Need To Know

Coronavirus belongs to the family of viruses that causes acute respiratory illness and the common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome(MERS). In December 2019, a new type of coronavirus was identified which originated from Wuhan, China.

This virus is named as novel coronavirus-2019. They consist of a core of genetic material which is surrounded by envelopes of protein spikes. This gives the appearance of clown and clown in Latin is known as the corona. That’s how this virus gets the name. It first appeared in a group of people which is directly associated with seafood or animal marketing.

Structure:

It is a single positive-stranded enveloped helical RNA. Positive means it doesn’t have RNA dependent polymerase. It is an obligate intracellular parasite that doesn’t produce on its own. It needs a host for reproduction because of no metabolic enzymes.

Pathogenesis: 

Once the virus enters the host cell, they copy that genetic material of the host cell. After it invades the host cell and blocks protein synthesis of the host itself. Then it forces the host cell to produce only the viral proteins and copies of genetic material.

Mechanism:

It starts with the following process; Adsorption and penetration: It occurs by the molecular interaction of the viral protein surface with the receptors of the plasma membrane of the host cell.

The entry of the virus occurs by the process of fusion and endocytosis. Then the virus decomposes and becomes insensitive to the neutralizing antibodies of the host cell. And the host cell senses it as the normal ligand.

Uncoating: 

After penetration, the virus uncoat and releases its nucleic acid into the cytoplasm of the host cell and starts forming a complex of polyproteins. 

Synthesis:

Then it starts transcription, translation, and replication. Polyproteins react with protease and form RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase reacts with antigenomic RNA and forms a positive-strand genome and mRNA. Then this mRNA reacts with RER and thus forms viral genome and new viruses.

Release:

These formed new viruses are then transmitted to other cells acting as host cells

Symptoms:

Symptoms may be few or no. It may include fever, dry cough, flu, muscle fatigue or sore throat, etc.

How does coronavirus spread?

The exact transmission of the novel coronavirus has to be determined yet.  But it has been said that this virus is transferred from bats to humans. It is thought to be spread through from person to person who closely interacts with one another within the range of 6-ft. It may also spread through respiratory droplets which produce when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Precautionary measures : 

  • Wash hands and face frequently.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, mouth, and nose.
  • Follow good respiratory hygiene.
  • Stay at home.
  • Don’t panic.
  • Avoid crowded places.
  • Should wear medicated masks and gloves suggested specifically for coronavirus when touching someone or when you’re out and has to deal with the public.

Treatment:

There’s no specific treatment and the vaccine has been advised yet. Just about self-care that is to drink plenty of liquid, keep yourself warm, rest and sleep. If you’ve any lighter symptoms like coughing or sneezing then seek medical treatment and isolate yourself from your surroundings as soon as possible.


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