Streptococcus Pyogenes

Streptococcus PyogenesStreptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria. These bacteria are aerotolerant and are made up of non-motile and non-sporing cocci. Therefore they are clinically important in human illness.

Epidemiology:

  • Throat
  • Genital mucosa
  • Rectum
  • Skin

1% to 5% of healthy individuals have the throat, vaginal, or rectal carriage because it is the site of their colonization.
While in healthy children, such carriage rate varies from 2% to 17%.

Methods of Transmission of Streptococcus Pyogenes:

  • Inhalation of respiratory droplets
  • Skin contact
  • Contact with objects
  • Surface
  • Dust that is contaminated with bacteria
  • Commonly transmission through food

Bacteriology:

They cause diseases such as

  • Streptococcal pharyngitis,
  • Rheumatic fever,
  • Rheumatic heart disease
  • Scarlet fever

S. pyogenes infection is more frequently found in men than women. It usually happens within one week of the diagnosis of influenza infection.

S. pyogenes serotyping:

S. pyogenes isolates based on their surface T-antigen. Four of the 20 T-antigens have been revealed to be pili.

Virulence factors:

  • S. pyogenes has several virulence factors:
  • Bacterial capsule composed of hyaluronic acid
  • M protein
  • Lipoteichoic acid
  • Protein F

Lysogeny:

They are all polylysogenized, in that they carry one or more bacteriophage on their genomes.

  • Streptolysin O
  • Streptolysin S
  • Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA)
  • Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SpeC)
  • Streptokinase
  • Hyaluronidase
  • Streptodornase
  • C5a peptidase
  • Streptococcal chemokine protease

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