Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria. These bacteria are aerotolerant and are made up of non-motile and non-sporing cocci. Therefore they are clinically important in human illness.
- Genital mucosa
1% to 5% of healthy individuals have the throat, vaginal, or rectal carriage because it is the site of their colonization.
While in healthy children, such carriage rate varies from 2% to 17%.
Methods of Transmission of Streptococcus Pyogenes:
- Inhalation of respiratory droplets
- Skin contact
- Contact with objects
- Dust that is contaminated with bacteria
- Commonly transmission through food
They cause diseases such as
- Streptococcal pharyngitis,
- Rheumatic fever,
- Rheumatic heart disease
- Scarlet fever
S. pyogenes infection is more frequently found in men than women. It usually happens within one week of the diagnosis of influenza infection.
S. pyogenes serotyping:
S. pyogenes isolates based on their surface T-antigen. Four of the 20 T-antigens have been revealed to be pili.
- S. pyogenes has several virulence factors:
- Bacterial capsule composed of hyaluronic acid
- M protein
- Lipoteichoic acid
- Protein F
They are all polylysogenized, in that they carry one or more bacteriophage on their genomes.
- Streptolysin O
- Streptolysin S
- Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA)
- Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SpeC)
- C5a peptidase
- Streptococcal chemokine protease
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